Wafer-scale epitaxial modulation of quantum dot density

Bart, N. and Dangel, C. and Zajac, P. and Spitzer, N. and Ritzmann, J. and Schmidt, M. and Babin, H.G. and Schott, R. and Valentin, S.R. and Scholz, S. and Wang, Y. and Uppu, R. and Najer, D. and Löbl, M.C. and Tomm, N. and Javadi, A. and Antoniadis, N.O. and Midolo, L. and Müller, K. and Warburton, R.J. and Lodahl, P. and Wieck, A.D. and Finley, J.J. and Ludwig, Ar.

Volume: 13 Pages:
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29116-8
Published: 2022

Precise control of the properties of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is vital for creating novel devices for quantum photonics and advanced opto-electronics. Suitable low QD-densities for single QD devices and experiments are challenging to control during epitaxy and are typically found only in limited regions of the wafer. Here, we demonstrate how conventional molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) can be used to modulate the density of optically active QDs in one- and two- dimensional patterns, while still retaining excellent quality. We find that material thickness gradients during layer-by-layer growth result in surface roughness modulations across the whole wafer. Growth on such templates strongly influences the QD nucleation probability. We obtain density modulations between 1 and 10 QDs/µm2 and periods ranging from several millimeters down to at least a few hundred microns. This method is universal and expected to be applicable to a wide variety of different semiconductor material systems. We apply the method to enable growth of ultra-low noise QDs across an entire 3-inch semiconductor wafer. © 2022, The Author(s).

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