Thermodynamics-guided alloy and process design for additive manufacturing

Sun, Z. and Ma, Y. and Ponge, D. and Zaefferer, S. and Jägle, E.A. and Gault, B. and Rollett, A.D. and Raabe, D.

Volume: 13 Pages:
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-31969-y
Published: 2022

In conventional processing, metals go through multiple manufacturing steps including casting, plastic deformation, and heat treatment to achieve the desired property. In additive manufacturing (AM) the same target must be reached in one fabrication process, involving solidification and cyclic remelting. The thermodynamic and kinetic differences between the solid and liquid phases lead to constitutional undercooling, local variations in the solidification interval, and unexpected precipitation of secondary phases. These features may cause many undesired defects, one of which is the so-called hot cracking. The response of the thermodynamic and kinetic nature of these phenomena to high cooling rates provides access to the knowledge-based and tailored design of alloys for AM. Here, we illustrate such an approach by solving the hot cracking problem, using the commercially important IN738LC superalloy as a model material. The same approach could also be applied to adapt other hot-cracking susceptible alloy systems for AM. © 2022, The Author(s).

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