Real-Time Measurement of Cellobiose and Glucose Formation during Enzymatic Biomass Hydrolysis

Chang, H. and Wohlschlager, L. and Csarman, F. and Ruff, A. and Schuhmann, W. and Scheiblbrandner, S. and Ludwig, R.

Volume: 93 Pages: 7732-7738
DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01182
Published: 2021

Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production relies on complex multi-enzyme ensembles. Continuous and accurate measurement of the released key products is crucial in optimizing the industrial degradation process and also investigating the activity and interaction between the involved enzymes and the insoluble substrate. Amperometric biosensors have been applied to perform continuous cellobiose measurements during the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose powders. The oxygen-sensitive mediators used in these biosensors restricted their function under physiological or industrial conditions. Also, the combined measurements of the hydrolysis products cellobiose and glucose require a high selectivity of the biorecognition elements. We employed an [Os(2,2′-bipyridine)2Cl]Cl-modified polymer and cellobiose dehydrogenase to fabricate a cellobiose biosensor, which can accurately and specifically detect cellobiose even in the presence of oxygen and the other main product glucose. Additionally, a glucose biosensor was fabricated to simultaneously measure glucose produced from cellobiose by β-glucosidases. The cellobiose and glucose biosensors work at applied potentials of +0.25 and +0.45 V versus Ag|AgCl (3 M KCl), respectively, and can selectively detect their substrate. Both biosensors were used in combination to monitor the hydrolysis of pure cellulose of low crystallinity or industrial corncob samples. The obtained results correlate with the high-performance liquid chromatography pulsed amperometric detection analysis and demonstrate that neither oxygen nor the presence of redox-active compounds from the lignin fraction of the corncob interferes with the measurements. © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

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