Microstructure and Properties of a Novel Carbon-Martensitic Hot Work Tool Steel Processed by Laser Additive Manufacturing without Preheating

Boes, J. and Röttger, A. and Mutke, C. and Escher, C. and Weber, S.

Volume: Pages:
DOI: 10.1002/srin.202200439
Published: 2022

Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) techniques, such as laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) or laser-directed energy deposition (L-DED), allow for the production of complex-shaped parts by either the local melting of a metallic powder bed by a laser beam (L-PBF) or a local application and laser beam melting of powder material by a nozzle (L-DED). In the case of carbon-martensitic tool steels, their cold crack susceptibility limits their LAM processability and is usually counteracted by substrate preheating. As preheating can increase the oxygen take-up of the powder and alter the part microstructure, it can be disadvantageous for part quality and powder reusability. In this study, it is investigated a carbon-martensitic steel designed for the production of parts with low crack density by LAM without preheating, focusing on the microstructure and hardness of the L-PBF- and L-DED-manufactured steel. The steel can be LAM-processed without preheating, resulting in specimens with low crack densities and martensitic microstructure with retained austenite. The hardness of the as-built material (L-PBF: 542HV30 and L-DED: 623HV30) is increased by quenching and tempering up to 693HV30. Direct tempering of the as-built specimen without previous quenching leads to a shift of the secondary hardness maximum from 500 to 530 °C. © 2022 The Authors. Steel Research International published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

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