Catalytic reactions in ball mills

Amrute, A.P. and Schüth, F.

Volume: 33 Pages: 307-346
DOI: 10.1039/9781839163128-00307
Published: 2021

Over the past two decades mechanochemistry has emerged as an important tool in catalysis research. It has not only shown promise for catalyst synthesis, resulting in properties that are often unattainable by conventional methods, but is also a very effective tool for performing catalytic reactions with exceptional selectivities. Besides, in several instances, it allows reactions under much milder conditions compared to thermochemical methods. In this chapter, we attempt to give an overview of these efforts with a focus on catalytic reactions in ball mills. Through the selection of prominent examples from the literature, from early mentions in 300 B.C. to recent times, we try to analyze how mechanical forces lead to chemical reactions and what effect they cause to materials or chemical reactions. We also discuss the state-of-the-art milling devices, and then cover broadly chemical reactions in ball mills. The latter part briefly tackles materials synthesis, but mainly focuses on chemical reactions of solid-solid and gas-solid nature from both organic synthesis and heterogeneous catalysis. The chapter also touches on the aspects of in situ analysis and scale-up with relevant literature. The latter areas are currently in the focus of attention to develop deeper understanding and to eventually find ways to make mechanocatalysis industrially applicable. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2021.

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