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Titanium Niobium Oxide Ti2Nb10O29/Carbon Hybrid Electrodes Derived by Mechanochemically Synthesized Carbide for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

Budak, Ö. and Srimuk, P. and Aslan, M. and Shim, H. and Borchardt, L. and Presser, V.

CHEMSUSCHEM
Volume: 14 Pages: 398-407
DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202002229
Published: 2021

Abstract
This work introduces the facile and scalable two-step synthesis of Ti2Nb10O29 (TNO)/carbon hybrid material as a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The first step consisted of a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction via ball-milling at room temperature to produce titanium niobium carbide with a Ti and Nb stoichiometric ratio of 1 to 5. The second step involved the oxidation of as-synthesized titanium niobium carbide to produce TNO. Synthetic air yielded fully oxidized TNO, while annealing in CO2 resulted in TNO/carbon hybrids. The electrochemical performance for the hybrid and non-hybrid electrodes was surveyed in a narrow potential window (1.0–2.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and a large potential window (0.05–2.5 V vs. Li/Li+). The best hybrid material displayed a specific capacity of 350 mAh g−1 at a rate of 0.01 A g−1 (144 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1) in the large potential window regime. The electrochemical performance of hybrid materials was superior compared to non-hybrid materials for operation within the large potential window. Due to the advantage of carbon in hybrid material, the rate handling was faster than that of the non-hybrid one. The hybrid materials displayed robust cycling stability and maintained ca. 70 % of their initial capacities after 500 cycles. In contrast, only ca. 26 % of the initial capacity was maintained after the first 40 cycles for non-hybrid materials. We also applied our hybrid material as an anode in a full-cell lithium-ion battery by coupling it with commercial LiMn2O4. © 2020 The Authors. ChemSusChem published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

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