X-ray-Based Techniques to Study the Nano-Bio Interface

Sanchez-Cano, C. and Alvarez-Puebla, R.A. and Abendroth, J.M. and Beck, T. and Blick, R. and Cao, Y. and Caruso, F. and Chakraborty, I. and Chapman, H.N. and Chen, C. and Cohen, B.E. and Conceição, A.L.C. and Cormode, D.P. and Cui, D. and Dawson, K.A. and Falkenberg, G. and Fan, C. and Feliu, N. and Gao, M. and Gargioni, E. and Glüer, C.-C. and Grüner, F. and Hassan, M. and Hu, Y. and Huang, Y. and Huber, S. and Huse, N. and Kang, Y. and Khademhosseini, A. and Keller, T.F. and Körnig, C. and Kotov, N.A. and Koziej, D. and Liang, X.-J. and Liu, B. and Liu, S. and Liu, Y. and Liu, Z. and Liz-Marzán, L.M. and Ma, X. and Machicote, A. and Maison, W. and Mancuso, A.P. and Megahed, S. and Nickel, B. and Otto, F. and Palencia, C. and Pascarelli, S. and Pearson, A. and Peñate-Medina, O. and Qi, B. and Rädler, J. and Richardson, J.J. and Rosenhahn, A. and Rothkamm, K. and Rübhausen, M. and Sanyal, M.K. and Schaak, R.E. and Schlemmer, H.-P. and Schmidt, M. and Schmutzler, O. and Schotten, T. and Schulz, F. and Sood, A.K. and Spiers, K.M. and Staufer, T. and Stemer, D.M. and Stierle, A. and Sun, X. and Tsakanova, G. and Weiss, P.S. and Weller, H. and Westermeier, F. and Xu, M. and Yan, H. and Zeng, Y. and Zhao, Y. and Zhao, Y. and Zhu, D. and Zhu, Y. and Parak, W.J.

Volume: 15 Pages: 3754-3807
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c09563
Published: 2021

X-ray-based analytics are routinely applied in many fields, including physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering. The full potential of such techniques in the life sciences and medicine, however, has not yet been fully exploited. We highlight current and upcoming advances in this direction. We describe different X-ray-based methodologies (including those performed at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free-electron lasers) and their potentials for application to investigate the nano-bio interface. The discussion is predominantly guided by asking how such methods could better help to understand and to improve nanoparticle-based drug delivery, though the concepts also apply to nano-bio interactions in general. We discuss current limitations and how they might be overcome, particularly for future use in vivo. ©

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