Time and Mechanism of Nanoparticle Functionalization by Macromolecular Ligands during Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids

Letzel, A. and Reich, S. and Dos Santos Rolo, T. and Kanitz, A. and Hoppius, J. and Rack, A. and Olbinado, M.P. and Ostendorf, A. and Gökce, B. and Plech, A. and Barcikowski, S.

Volume: 35 Pages: 3038-3047
DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b01585
Published: 2019

Laser ablation of gold in liquids with nanosecond laser pulses in aqueous solutions of inorganic electrolytes and macromolecular ligands for gold nanoparticle size quenching is probed inside the laser-induced cavitation bubble by in situ X-ray multicontrast imaging with a Hartmann mask (XHI). It is found that (i) the in situ size quenching power of sodium chloride (NaCl) in comparison to the ablation in pure water can be observed by the scattering contrast from XHI already inside the cavitation bubble, while (ii) for polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a macromolecular model ligand an in situ size quenching cannot be observed. Complementary ex situ characterization confirms the overall size quenching ability of both additive types NaCl and PVP. The macromolecular ligand as well as its monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) are mainly effective for growth quenching of larger nanoparticles on later time scales, leading to the conclusion of an alternative interaction mechanism with ablated nanoparticles compared to the electrolyte NaCl, probably outside of the cavitation bubble, in the surrounding liquid phase. While monomer and polymer have similar effects on the particle properties, with the polymer being slightly more efficient, only the polymer is effective against hydrodynamic aggregation. © 2019 American Chemical Society.

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