Single entity electrochemistry for the elucidation of lithiation kinetics of TiO 2 particles in non-aqueous batteries

Löffler, T. and Clausmeyer, J. and Wilde, P. and Tschulik, K. and Schuhmann, W. and Ventosa, E.

Volume: 57 Pages: 827-834
DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.12.064
Published: 2019

In battery research, the development of analytical techniques is of key importance for determining intrinsic properties of active materials ultimately dictating the battery performance. We report the application of nano-impact electrochemistry to gain insight into the intrinsic properties of commercial battery materials i.e. TiO 2 particles in non-aqueous media. Potentiostatic lithiation measurements do not only provide qualitative information about the rate-limiting step in the lithiation process, but also demonstrate that nano-impact electrochemistry is a suitable technique in non-aqueous media in complete absence of oxygen and water. Our results reveal that the intrinsic lithiation rate of individual TiO 2 particles is not – as generally assumed – determined by interfacial ion transfer kinetics, mobility of ion and/or electrons in the bulk of the particle, but by the solid-solid electron transfer. These findings have important implications for future studies of fundamental properties of battery materials considering that charge transfer in battery electrodes does not always obey Butler-Volmer kinetics. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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