Microstructure and mechanical properties of X65MoCrWV3-2 cold-work tool steel produced by selective laser melting

Boes, J. and Röttger, A. and Mutke, C. and Escher, C. and Theisen, W.

Volume: 23 Pages: 170-180
DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.08.005
Published: 2018

In this study, martensitic cold-work tool steel X65MoCrWV3-2 was processed by selective laser melting (SLM) by varying the laser scanning parameters and baseplate preheating temperatures. Porosity as well as crack density of the SLM-densified steel were determined by quantitative image analysis. The resulting microstructure and the associated local mechanical properties were characterized, and the hardness-tempering behavior of the SLM-densified steel was compared to the behavior of the conventionally manufactured X65MoCrWV3-2 steel in the cast and hot-formed condition. Regardless of the preheating temperature, SLM-densified X65MoCrWV3-2 possesses a porosity of less than 0.5 vol.-%. The crack density was reduced significantly by means of a higher preheating temperature. The microstructure after SLM densification shows a fine, equiaxed cellular-dendritic subgrain structure, superimposed by lath- or needle-like martensite. The martensite morphology appeared to be finer at a lower preheating temperature, whereas the observed subgrain structure did not seem to be influenced by the preheating temperatures. Microhardness measurements indicated tempering effects in first solidified layers caused by the densification of subsequently deposited layers. Peak hardness after tempering of the SLM-densified steel was found to be higher compared to the maximum hardness in the X65MoCrWV3-2 steel in the cast condition. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

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