Influence of low Bi contents on phase transformation properties of VO2studied in a VO2:Bi thin film library

Wang, X. and Rogalla, D. and Kostka, A. and Ludwig, Al.

Volume: 11 Pages: 7231-7237
DOI: 10.1039/d0ra09654g
Published: 2021

A thin-film materials library in the system V-Bi-O was fabricated by reactive co-sputtering. The composition of Bi relative to V was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, ranging from 0.06 to 0.84 at% along the library. The VO2phase M1 was detected by X-ray diffraction over the whole library, however a second phase was observed in the microstructure of films with Bi contents > 0.29 at%. The second phase was determined by electron diffraction to be BiVO4, which suggests that the solubility limit of Bi in VO2is only ∼0.29 at%. For Bi contents from 0.08 to 0.29 at%, the phase transformation temperatures of VO2:Bi increase from 74.7 to 76.4 °C by 8 K per at% Bi. With X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, the oxidation state of Bi was determined to be 3+. The V5+/V4+ratio increases with increasing Bi content from 0.10 to 0.84 at%. The similarly increasing tendency of the V5+/V4+ratio andTcwith Bi content suggests that although the ionic radius of Bi3+is much larger than that of V4+, the charge doping effect and the resulting V5+are more prominent in regulating the phase transformation behavior of Bi-doped VO2 © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2021.

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