Improved process efficiency in laser-based powder bed fusion of nanoparticle coated maraging tool steel powder

Pannitz, O. and Großwendt, F. and Lüddecke, A. and Kwade, A. and Röttger, A. and Sehrt, J.T.

Volume: 14 Pages:
DOI: 10.3390/ma14133465
Published: 2021

Research and development in the field of metal-based additive manufacturing are advancing steadily every year. In order to increase the efficiency of powder bed fusion of metals using a laser beam system (PBF LB/M), machine manufacturers have implemented extensive optimizations with regard to the laser systems and build volumes. However, the optimization of metallic powder materials using nanoparticle additives enables an additional improvement of the laser–material interaction. In this work, tool steel 1.2709 powder was coated with silicon carbide (SiC), few-layer graphene (FLG), and iron oxide black (IOB) on a nanometer scale. Subsequently, the feedstock material and the modified powder materials were analyzed concerning the reflectance of the laser radiation and processed by PBF-LB/M in a systematic and consistent procedure to evaluate the impact of the nano-additivation on the process efficiency and mechanical properties. As a result, an increased build rate is achieved, exhibiting a relative density of 99.9% for FLG/1.2709 due to a decreased reflectance of this modified powder material. Furthermore, FLG/1.2709 provides hardness values after precipitation hardening with only aging comparable to the original 1.2709 material and is higher than the SiC- and IOB-coated material. Additionally, the IOB coating tends to promote oxide‐formation and lack‐of‐fusion defects. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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