Publications

High surface area black TiO2 templated from ordered mesoporous carbon for solar driven hydrogen evolution

Xiong, Y. and Gu, D. and Deng, X. and Tüysüz, H. and van Gastel, M. and Schüth, F. and Marlow, F.

MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS MATERIALS
Volume: 268 Pages: 162-169
DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2018.04.018
Published: 2018

Abstract
Hydrogen reduction of TiO2 to generate surface Ti3+ can significantly increase the photochemical activity under solar-light illumination. However, the low surface areas of commercial TiO2 limit their photocatalytic activities. Herein, we report a high surface area ordered mesoporous black TiO2, which exhibits an improved photocatalytic performance. The TiO2 material was prepared by using a highly ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 as a hard template, which possesses very high surface area, large pore volume and uniform mesopores. By using the advantage of pore confinement in the mesoporous carbon template, TiO2-carbon composites were annealed at different temperatures to investigate the influence of the crystallinity of TiO2 on the photocatalytic hydrogen production. TiO2 calcined at 500 °C, having a high surface area (up to 158 m2 g−1), large pore volume (up to 0.62 cm3 g−1), uniform pore size (5–6 nm), and anatase crystal structure, indicated the highest hydrogen generation rate. Since the TiO2 has been treated at a higher temperature in the confinement of the mesoporous carbon, the TiO2 can easily be reduced at 500 °C under hydrogen atmosphere to generate surface Ti3+ species without destruction of the mesostructure and exhibits a high solar-driven hydrogen evolution rate (188 μmol h−1), which is more than two times higher than that of commercial TiO2 (82 μmol h−1). © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

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