Glancing-angle deposition of nanostructures on an implant material surface

Ziegler, N. and Sengstock, C. and Mai, V. and Schildhauer, T.A. and Köller, M. and Ludwig, Al.

Volume: 9 Pages:
DOI: 10.3390/nano9010060
Published: 2019

Cell-compatible and antibacterial surfaces are needed for implants, which frequently have complex and rough surfaces. Bio-inspired columnar nanostructures can be grown on flat substrates; however, the application of these nanostructures on clinically relevant, complex, and rough surfaces was pending. Therefore, a titanium plasma spray (TPS) implant surface was coated with titanium nano-spikes via glancing angle magnetron sputter deposition (GLAD) at room temperature. Using GLAD, it was possible to cover the three-dimensional, highly structured macroscopic surface (including cavities, niches, clefts, and curved areas) of the TPS homogeneously with nano-spikes (TPS+), creating a cell-compatible and antibacterial surface. The adherence and spreading of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were similar for TPS and TPS+ surfaces. However, MSC adherent to TPS+ expressed less and shorter pseudopodia. The induced osteogenic response of MSC was significantly increased in cells cultivated on TPS+ compared with TPS. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) adherent to the nano-spikes were partly destructed by a physico-mechanical mechanism; however, Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus) were not significantly damaged. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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