Frequency-Coded mm-Wave Tags for Self-Localization System Using Dielectric Resonators

Jiménez-Sáez, A. and Alhaj-Abbas, A. and Schüßler, M. and Abuelhaija, A. and El-Absi, M. and Sakaki, M. and Samfaß, L. and Benson, N. and Hoffmann, M. and Jakoby, R. and Kaiser, T. and Solbach, K.

Volume: 41 Pages: 908-925
DOI: 10.1007/s10762-020-00707-0
Published: 2020

The paper describes the development of passive, chipless tags for a novel indoor self-localization system operating at high mm-wave frequencies. One tag concept is based on the low-Q fundamental mode of dielectric resonators (DR) which exhibits peak scattering at its resonance frequency. As the radar cross-section (RCS) of DRs at mm-wave frequencies is far too low for the intended application, arrays of DRs and combinations with dielectric lens and corner reflectors are investigated to boost the RCS while keeping the scattering retro-directive over wide-angle incidence. Satisfactory results are demonstrated experimentally in W-band with metal corner reflectors combined with planar arrays of DRs; the tags produce a high RCS level over a moderately broad angular range and a wide frequency range where they exhibit a notch at the resonance frequency of the dielectric resonators. These designs suffer from low coding range of 3 to 6 bit, degradations of RCS in angular range, and a difficult separation of the tag response from strong clutter. Both the suppression of large clutter interference by using time gating of the tag response and a larger coding range are promised by a chipless tag concept based on multiple high-Q resonators in photonic crystal (PhC) technology. Experimental samples are characterized as transmission resonators and as retro-directive tags at the 230 GHz band. As a concept to boost the retro-directive RCS with a truly wide-angle response, the integration of PhC resonators with a Luneburg lens is discussed. © 2020, The Author(s).

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